The most learned and precise form of chanting of the Qur’ān in the original Arabic, proceeding in gradually rising and falling phrases with silences at syntactically appropriate moments. The criteria for proper chanting are textual: prolongation of sound without falling (istirsāl); softening without loss of intonation (tarkhīm); amplification (tafkhīm); breath control (taqdīr alanfās); and transition from stressed to unstressed sound (tadjrīd). Egypt has enjoyed the reputation as the center of tajwīd for at least three centuries. Egyptian qāri (cantors) are highly respected and paid and travel widely to teach.

Historical dictionary of sacred music. . 2006.

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